NOTE This document should be considered incomplete and descriptive rather than normative. Do not rely on anything described herein to be fully correct or a definition of how things should be done.
A lot of the content herein is derived from a posting made to the Rust internals forum by Brian Anderson back in 2016.
Rust releases are deployed onto
static.rust-lang.org where they are served via
https. There are several parts to a release channel (
nightly) but they all key off a manifest file and then go from there.
There is a top level directory
/dist/ which contains the channel manifests.
The manifests are named
channel-rust-[channelname].toml. Each channel manifest
is accompanied by a
.sha256 file which is a checksum of the manifest file and
can be used to check integrity of the downloaded data. In addition each
channel’s manifest is also accompanied by a
.asc file which is a detached GPG
signature which can be used to check not only the integrity but also the
authenticity of the channel manifest.
In addition to the
nightly channels, there is also a
manifest for each release which will be called
To support date-based channels, there is an archive folder for each day
YYYY-MM-DD) which contains copies of the requisite channel files on
that day. So, for example, if you installed
nightly-2019-02-16 then the
channel file would be
Channel manifests are
toml files. These are known as v2 manifests. The v1
manifests are simply lists of the files associated with a release and are not
generated for every channel all of the time. Currently it is recommended to work
only with the v2 manifests and these are the topic of this section.
The top level of the
.toml file consists of two important key/value pairs.
manifest-version which is, at this time,
"2", and secondly the
date of the manifest (
date) whose value is of the form
There are then a number of top level sections (tables) which are:
pkg- This contains the bulk of the manifest and lists the packages which are part of the release. Typically this will be things like
rustpackage is semi-special and currently is used to specify the subset of other packages which will be installed by default.
Within packages are
componentsare installed by default by
extensionsare optional components and are available via
rustup component addand friends.
renames- This contains a set of package renames which can be used to determine the correct package to fetch when the user enters an alias for it.
Typically renames are used when a package leaves its preview state and is considered to be release quality. For example, the actual package for
rustfmt-previewbut since its release there has been a
rustfmt-preview. When the user runs
rustup component add rustfmtthe name is automatically translated to
rustfmt-previewand when the user runs
rustup component listthen
rustfmt-previewis automatically renamed back to
rustfmtfor display to the user.
profiles- This is part of the future setup for deciding the default component set to install. Instead of choosing the
rustupwill honor one of the entries in the
profilestable. Usually this will be the
defaultentry which essentially (though not exactly) boils down to
["rustc", "cargo", "rust-std", "rust-docs", "rustfmt", "clippy"].
Other profiles include
["rustc", "cargo", "rust-std"]) and
completewhich adds in additional things such as a copy of the standard library source (
As stated above, packages list their components and extensions (mostly just the
rust package) and they can provide per-target tarball and sha256 data.
For example, a package might be:
[pkg.cargo.target.powerpc64-unknown-linux-gnu] available = true url = "https://static.rust-lang.org/dist/2019-05-23/cargo-0.36.0-powerpc64-unknown-linux-gnu.tar.gz" hash = "279f3a84f40e3547a8532c64643f38068accb91c21f04cd16e46579c893f5a06" xz_url = "https://static.rust-lang.org/dist/2019-05-23/cargo-0.36.0-powerpc64-unknown-linux-gnu.tar.xz" xz_hash = "cf93b387508f4aea4e64f8b4887d70cc07a00906b981dc0c143e92e918682e4a"
Here you can see that this is for the
cargo package, and for the
powerpc64-unknown-linux-gnu target. The
hash combo is for a
xz_hash pair for the same tarball compressed with
Either pair of url and hash could be present, both may be present, but it is not
useful for neither to be present unless
available is set to
indicate that that particular combination of package and target is unavailable
in this channel at this time.
In addition, there will be a single entry providing the version for a package in the form:
[pkg.cargo] version = "0.36.0 (6f3e9c367 2019-04-04)"
version will be effectively the
$tool --version output, minus the
Targets are the same triples you might use when building something with
cargo build --target=$target and you can add them to your installation using
rustup target add $target. When you do that, what
rustup actually does is to
rust-std package for the target in question and installs that.
Essentially like an imaginary
rustup component add rust-std.$target.
rust-std package for a target is not
available = true then that target
cannot be installed via
rustup. This can happen for lower tier targets from
time to time.
Since components and extensions are target-specific in the
pkg tables, you
will be able to see that
rust-std for every target is specified in every
rust target’s extensions. This allows for cross-compilation by installation of
rust-std on any build system.